Tolkien intended the name Gondor to be Sindarin for “land of stone”. [T 1][T 2] This is echoed in the text of The Lord of the Rings by the name for Gondor among the Rohirrim, Stoningland. [T 3] Tolkien’s early writings suggest that this was a reference to the highly developed masonry of Gondorians in contrast to their rustic neighbours. [T 4] This view is supported by the Drúedain terms for Gondorians and Minas Tirith—Stonehouse-folk and Stone-city. [T 5] Tolkien denied that the name Gondor had been inspired by the ancient Ethiopian citadel of Gondar, stating that the root Ond went back to an account he had read as a child mentioning ond (“stone”) as one of only two words known of the pre-Celtic languages of Britain. [T 6] Gondor is also called the South-kingdom or Southern Realm, and together with Arnor as the Númenórean Realms in Exile. Researchers Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull have proposed a Quenya translation of Gondor: Ondonórë.